Content Guidelines

We encourage you to familiarize yourself with article template.

Abstract: Must be a concise job description (200-250 words), which must include the following elements - aim of the work (concise outline of the background of the work, definition of research goals), research problems, research hypotheses, research methods (presentation of the research methodology, explanation of quantitative or qualitative methods and identification of research instruments), results (concise summary of the main results obtained) and conclusions (explanation of why the research results are significant and what they convey a key message.
Keywords: 5 words describing the content of the work.


Introduction: a short introduction to the issue with reference to the existing state of research, a precisely described purpose of the publication and presentation of the research strategy with the research hypothesis and/or question research.
Verification of literature: presentation of the most important research results in the presented topic, which include articles published in recognized Polish and foreign journals; this part must include self-assessment of the existing scientific output.
Research methodology: detailed description of the research procedure with an explanation of the quantitative and/or qualitative methods used and the specification of research instruments.
Results: presentation of the results obtained, if possible in graphical (charts) or tabular form.
Main content - discussion: in-depth discussion regarding the current state of research, indication of research limitations (if any) and development prospects.
Conclusions: reference to the purpose of the article stated in the introduction, emphasizing the importance of the results obtained and the innovativeness of the research or scientific contribution to the field; indication of research limitations (if any).
References: should include the scientific publications cited in the article as well as the websites and other sources used; references should be current and complete.


  • all main words in the titles of journals and books should be capitalized;
  • the page number should always be given in the quoted text (Kowalski 2023, p. 10);
  • publications by the same author from the same year are distinguished in the order of publication by an alphabetical suffix placed after the year of publication (2017a, 2017b); the same suffix is used to distinguish references to a given publication in the text;
  • the bibliographic list (under the heading Bibliography) contains detailed information on all sources cited in the text; each listed item must be cited in the article;
  • in the case of the same author but different years of publication, list the author's items chronologically starting from the earliest date;
  • in the case of the same author and the same year of publication, use the alphabetic suffix (2017a, 2017b).

    Author, A. A. and Author, B., Year. Title of the article. Journal title, volume (issue), pages.

    Evans, W.A., 1994. Approaches to intelligent information retrieval. Information Processing and Management, 1 (2), 147-168.
    Author, A., Year. Book's title. Place of publication: Publisher.

    Mercer, P.A. and Smith, G., 1993. Private viewdata in the UK. 2nd ed. London: Longman.
    Author, A., Year. Chapter title. In: A. Editor and B. Editor, eds. Title of the book. Place of publication: Publisher, pages.

    Bantz, C.R., 1995. Social dimensions of software development. In: J.A. Anderson, ed. Annual review of software management and development. Newbury Park, CA: 502-510.
    Author, A.A., Author, & Author , C., Year. Job title. In: A. Editor, B. Editor & C. Editor (eds.), Title of the conference: information about the conference. Conference venue, conference date, parties.

    Eidenberger, H., Breitenender, C. and Hitz, M., 2002. A Frameworks for Visual Information Retrieval. In S-K. Chang, Z. Chen and S-Y. Lee (eds), Recent advances in visual information systems: 5th International conference, VISUAL 2002 proceesings. Hsin Chu, Taiwan, March 11-13, 2002, 105-116.
    Author, A., Year. Document title [online]. Source. Available at: URL [accessed:].

    Holland, M., 2004. Guide to citing Internet sources [online]. Poole, Bournemouth University. Available at: [accessed: November 4, 2004].
    Author, A. (or Title of Newspaper), Year. Title of article. Title of Newspaper, day Month, page, column.

    Independent, 1992. Picking up the bills. Independent, June 4, p. 28a.
    Author, A., 1995. Title of the thesis. Type of work (degree). University.

    Agutter, A.J., 1995. The linguistic significance of current British slang. Thesis (PhD). Edinburgh University.
    Act of 3 July 2002 - Aviation Law (Journal of Laws of 2013, item 1393), chapter 1, art. 2, point 2.

    Commonwealth of Australia, A., 2001. Corporations Act 2001 [online]. Available at: [accessed: March 30, 2018].
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