Paulina POLKO 1, A-F
More details
Hide details
Wydział Nauk Stosowanych Katedra Nauk o Bezpieczeństwie, Akademia WSB, Polska
A - Research concept and design; B - Collection and/or assembly of data; C - Data analysis and interpretation; D - Writing the article; E - Critical revision of the article; F - Final approval of article
Paulina POLKO   

Wydział Nauk Stosowanych Katedra Nauk o Bezpieczeństwie, Akademia WSB, Cieplaka 1c, 41-300, Dąbrowa Górnicza, Polska
Publication date: 2022-03-30
SBN 2022;23(1): 27–43
The aim of the study presented in this article was to analyze the process of securitization of the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic in 2020 and 2021 as a process of creation of a global existential threat, requiring the implementation of extraordinary solutions in order to eliminate it. The following hypothesis was verified: the Sars-Cov-2 virus pandemic underwent the process of successful securitization, mainly in Europe and North America, but it was completed with desecuritization and the transition to subsequent phases, referring to the logic of other theories related to the expansion of security categories. The analysis was made using three theoretical frameworks: The Theory of Securitization (Copenhagen School), The Theory of Just Securitization (R. Floyd) and The Theory of "Riskification" (O. Corry), by the method of analysis and synthesis, by means of induction and deduction. These theories are considered appropriate to be used in the research due to their nature. The classical Theory of Securitization formulates the basic framework and requirements of the process of including new problems in the security category. The Just Securitization Theory, which is critical to it, specifies the legitimacy of securitization depending on the existence of the threat. The Riskifikation Theory refers to the process of including risks (potential threats) in the security category and applying extraordinary measures to them. As a result of the undertaken research activities, it was established that the successful securitization of a pandemic threat did not end in desecuritization, in line with the assumptions of the Securitization Theory, but went into the process of "riskification", i.e. transformation from reacting with extraordinary measures to a significant, objective existential threat to respond to the risk of such a risk. threats, which have significant consequences for the organization of the process of ensuring health security. These findings are important for understanding the processes of including new threats (and risks) in the security category and how to manage them with exceptional measures. The presented research results may be useful in the case of subsequent sudden threats similar to the Sars-Cov-2 pandemic, in order to assess potential ways of combating them and counteracting their effects.
Aldis, W., 2008. Health security as a public health concept: a critical analysis. Health Policy and Planning, 23, 369–375, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Balzacq, T., 2005. The three faces of securitization: Political, agency, audience, and context. European Journal of International Relations, 11(2), 171–201, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Brundtland, G. H., 1999 . WHO roundtable with the International Generic Pharmaceutical Alliance: global partnerships for health: general policy issues. WHO drug information, 13( 2) , 61–62.
Buzan, B. i Wæver, O., 2003. Regions and Powers: The Structure of International Security. Cambridge: Cambrigde University Press.
Chan, M., 2009. Primary health care as a route to health security. Lancet, 373, 1586–1587, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Chiu, Y. W., Weng, Y. H., Su, Y. Y., Huang, C. Y., Chang, Y. C. i Kuo, K. N., 2009. The nature of international health security. Asia Pacific journal of clinical nutrition, 18(4), 679–683, https:// [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Cooper, R. N., 1989. International cooperation in public health as a prologue to macroeconomic cooperation. W: R. N. Cooper, B. Eichengreen, C. R. Henning, G. Holtham i R. D. Putnam RD (red.). Can Nations Agree? Issues in International Economic Cooperation. Washington: Brookings Institution Press, 193–210.
Corry, O., 2012. Securitisation and ‘Riskification’: Second-order Security and the Politics of Climate Change. Millennium: Journal of International Studies, 40(2) 235–258, https://doi. org/10.1177/0305829811419444 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Davies, S., 2008. Securitizing infectious disease. International Affairs, 84(2), 295–313, http:// [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
de Waal, A. i Whiteside, A., 2003. New variant famine: AIDS and food crisis in southern Africa. Lancet, 362(9391), 1234–1237, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Fidler, D. P. i Draeger, N., 2006. Health and foreign policy. Bulletin of the World Health Organization 84(9), pdf?sequence=1&isAllowed=y [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Floyd, R., 2007. Towards a consequentialist evaluation of security: bringing together the Copenhagen and the Welsh Schools of security studies. Review of International Studies, 33(2), 327–350, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Floyd, R., 2010. Security and the environment: securitization theory and US environmental security policy. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Floyd, R., 2014. Just and unjust desecuritization. W: T. Balzacq, red. Contesting Security: Strategies and Logics. London: Routledge, 122–138, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Floyd, R., 2016. Extraordinary or ordinary emergency measures: what, and who, defines the ‘success’ of securitization? Cambridge Review of International Affairs, 29(2), 677–694, https:// [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Floyd, R., 2019. The Morality of Security. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Fourie, P. i Schonteich, M., 2001. Africa’s new security threat: HIV/AIDS and human security in Southern Africa. African Security Review 10, 29–42, 1.9627950 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Fukuda-Parr, S., 2003. New threats to human security in the era of globalization. Journal of Human Development, 4(2), 167–179, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Garrett, L., 1996. The return of infectious disease. Foreign Affairs 75, 66–79.
Gebretensae, G. B., 2004. HIV/AIDS and Regional Security in Africa: Principles for Incorporating HIV/AIDS into the Common African Security and Defense Policy and Establishing HIV/AIDS Guidelines for the African. Justice Africa, uploads/2006/07/Tsadkan_Draft_Principles.pdf [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Hardiman, M., 2003. The revised International Health Regulations: a framework for global health security. International Journal of Antimicrobial Agents, 21(2), 207–211, S0924-8579(02)00294-7 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Hoffman, S. J., 2010. The evolution, etiology and eventualities of the global health security regime. Health Policy and Planning, 25(6), 510–522, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Heller, C., 2001. From Risk to Globalization: Discursive Shifts in the French Debate about GMOs’. Medical Anthropology Quarterly, 15(1), 25–28, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Herington, J., 2010. Securitization of infectious diseases in Vietnam: the cases of HIV and avian influenza. Health Policy and Planning, 25(6), 467–475, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Hough, P., 2014. Part 1: The Securitization of Global Environmental Policy. W: P. Hough, red. Environmental Security. London: Routledge, 21–35.
Howard-Jones, N., 1975. The Scientific Background of the International Sanitary Conferences, 1851–1938. World Health Organization.
Lo Yuk-Ping, C. i Thomas, N., 2010. How is health a security issue? Politics, responses and issues. Health Policy and Planning, 25, 447–453, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
McInnes, C. i Rushton, S., 2013. HIV/AIDS and securitization theory. European Journal of International Relations, 19(1), 115–138. [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Oels, A., 2012. From ‘Securitization’ of Climate Change to ‘Climatization’ of the Security Field: Comparing Three Theoretical Perspectives. W: J. Scheffran, M. Brzoska, H. Brauch, P. Link I J.Schilling, red. Climate Change, Human Security and Violent Conflict, Hexagon Series of Human and Environmental Security and Peace, Volume 8, Berlin: Springer, 185–205, https://doi. org/10.1007/978-3-642-28626-1_9 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Pallikadavath, S. i Stones, R.W., 2003. Women’s reproductive health security and HIV/AIDS in India. Economic and Political Weekly 38, 4173–4181.
Polko, P., 2020. Securitisation of communication in public space during Covid 19 pandemic. Journal of Security and Sustainability Issues, 12, 15–30, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Prins, G., 2004. AIDS and global security. International Affairs 80, 931–952, https://doi. org/10.1111/j.1468-2346.2004.00426.x [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Pueyo, T., 2020. Coronavirus: The Hammer and the Dance. What the Next 18 Months Can Look Like, if Leaders Buy Us Time. Medium, 19.03.2020, coronavirus-the-hammer-and-the-dance-be9337092b56 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Rasmussen, M. V., 2006. The Risk Society at War. Terror, Technology and Strategy in Twenty-First Century. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press.
Roe, P., 2008. Actor, Audience(s) and Emergency Measures: Securitization and the UK’s Decision to Invade Iraq. Security Dialogue, 39(6), 615–635, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Scharoun, K., van Caulil, K. i Liberman, A., 2002. Bioterrorism vs. health security — crafting a plan of preparedness. Health Care Manager, 21, 74–92, doi: 10.1097/00126450-200209000- 00007 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Stern, A.M. i Merkel, H., 2004. International efforts to control infectious diseases, 1851 to the present. Journal of the American Medical Association, 292, 1474–1479, doi: 10.1001/ jama.292.12.1474 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Stuckler, D., King, L., Robinson, H. i McKee, M., 2008. WHO’s budgetary allocations and burden of disease: a comparative analysis. The Lancet, 372, 1563–1569, 6736(13)61930-3 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
United Nation Development Programme (UNDP 1994), en/home/librarypage/hdr/human-development-report-1994 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Vogler, J., 2013. International Relations Theory and the Environment. W: G. Ktting, red. Global Environmental Politics, Concepts, Theories and Case Studies. New York: Routledge, 11–26.
Wæver, O., 2004. Aberystwyth, Paris, Copenhagen. New Schools in Security Theory and their Origins between Core and Periphery. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the International Studies Association, Montreal, March 17-20, 2004.
Wilson, K., McDougall, C. i Forster, A., 2009. The responsibility of healthcare institutions to protect global health security. Healthc Q., 12, 56–60. doi: 10.12927/hcq.2009.20415.
Wilson, K., von Tigerstrom, B. i McDougall, C., 2008. Protecting global health security through the International Health Regulations: requirements and challenges. CMAJ: Canadian Medical Association Journal (Journal de l’Association Medicale Canadienne), 179(1), 44–48, https://doi. org/10.1503/cmaj.080516 [dostęp: 12.03.2022].
Wishnick, E., 2010. Dilemmas of securitization and health risk management in the People’s Republic of China: the cases of SARS and avian influenza. Health Policy and Planning, 25, 454–466, [dostęp: 12.03.2022].